India – Pakistan,
India (Naxalites)
BICC Human Rights Assessment
BICC Illicit Arms Trade Risk
Conflict Detail Descriptions
India – Pakistan:
India and Pakistan are in violent conflict over the status of the Kashmir region, water distribution, international and regional power. Since Pakistan was established, the sovereignety of the Kashmir has led to various violent confrontations throughout the years, as well as rearming on both sides, including nuclear bombs. The most recent escalation of the conflict took place in 2019. Following fire exchange both sides were accused of shooting down an airplane and threathened to start a full scale war. While the situation eventually deescalated, diplomatic tensions remain high, particularly regarding mutual accusations of state-sponsored terrorism.,
Pakistan (Balochistan):
The violent crisis over the secession of Balochistan province and the control of its gas, oil, coal, and mineral resources between several Baloch militant groups and political parties, on the one hand, and the government, supported by China, on the other, continued. Throughout the year, the Balochistan Liberation Army (BLA), the United Baloch Army (UBA), the Balochistan Liberation Front (BLF), and the Baloch Raji Ajoie Sangar (BRAS) conducted several attacks and frequently clashed with security forces. Overall, security forces arrested 14 militants while at least 41 people were killed, among them four members of the BLA and five members of the BRAS., Pakistan (Islamist militant groups): The violent crisis over national power and the orientation of the political system between the Islamist militant groups Tehreek-e-Taliban (TTP), Jamaat-ul-Ahrar (JuA), Lashkar-e- Jhangvi, and al-Qaeda, on the one hand, and the government, on the other, continued. Militant groups remotely detonated eight IEDs throughout the year. For example, on January 7 a motorbike laden with explosive materials was remotely detonated near Liaqat market in Quetta, Balochistan province, when a vehicle carrying security personnel passed by. Two civilians were killed and at least 14 injured, including two security personnel. JuA, an offshoot faction of TTP, claimed responsibility for the attack. Over the course of the year, the Pakistani Counter Terrorism Department carried out twelve reported raids on known TTP bases across the provinces of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan, Punjab, and Sindh. Overall, the raids resulted in the death of seven Pakistani soldiers, 33 militants, and one civilian as well as the arrest of eight militants.